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UK has longest tax code handbook in the world

The tax code of the UK has been the longest in the world since 2009 the tax code of the UK has actually doubled...

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Necessary Things that Amateur Traders Should Know

Options market provides a significant opportunity to make money. So, many people want to trade in this business field. But, traders cannot able to make money properly if they have lack of potential skills. The traders should have proper knowledge about the market conditions and the different types of methods so that they can able to manage the risk appropriately. So, a businessman should take proper preparation so that he or she can regulate the business properly. There are some crucial things that people must know to establish themselves in the Forex market. These are being discussed here.

Develop the Cognition

Investors should learn about the market’s variables and different phases so that they can execute the trade properly. A person should know the value of exit and entry signals which help them to determine the benefits of holding the position. When a person will able to know about the market, he or she will not be frustrated because of facing a losing streak as the good cycle will arrive which will allow him or her to make up the current loss. An investor is also required to learn about technical analysis which helps them to understand the chart patterns to predict the value of the currency pair.

Choose a Good Mentor

Amateur traders need to choose a mentor who can provide them potential support in a difficult situation. When a person will going to select a mentor, he or she should consider some necessary issues such as communication skills, attitude, knowledge, and so on. If the mentor respects the amateur’s style and inspires him or her properly for gaining better cognition and developing the trading skill, then the fresher should select him or her as a trading coach. Successful traders will able to provide better suggestions and better support to get victory in the options market. Without having the proper education, it’s very hard to survive in the UK trading community. So, learn from the expert traders or train yourself really hard.

Use a Micro Account

Only a demo account is not enough for providing the proper experience to the traders. If a person opens a micro account, he or she will get a chance to trade with a short amount of money. This is true, if you face a losing streak, you will lose some money. But, this will provide you the best knowledge that you will not get in the books, journals, and websites.

Need to Know About the Currency

When an investor is buying a currency pair, he or she should know about the current position of a particular country. The economic conditions of the country can influence the price of the country pair. Sometimes, unemployment problems also create a change in the price movement. Besides, high-interest rates and inflation rates also influence the movement of the price.

Risk Management

Traders take the wrong risk management decision when they are not emotionally stable. If a person feels greed for money, he or she will try to take high risks or high leverage so that he or she can able to be a rich man within a short time. On the other hand, sometimes the investors trade less because of the afraid of facing loss. So, when you will able to control the emotions, you will learn how to manage the risks. Besides this, people also need to know the way of utilizing Forex orders. This can help to reduce the risk and limit the loss which enables people to make more money from Forex market.

Develop the Adapting Power

An investor should know how to cope up with a different situation to regulate the business systematically. You will face lots of ups and downs in the market, so you have to know how to tackle these circumstances. The businessmen should develop the confidence level to countenance the different conditions of the market to make appropriate moves.      

Is now the time to retrain as a Gas Engineer

If you’re someone who is a practical person who enjoys completing different challenges, a people person and is searching for a new career path then this article can guide you towards your first steps to become a gas engineer. The UK Commission for Employment and Skills stated that there has been a shortage of up 43% skilled workers in the trades industry which has led to the increase in demand for more workers like gas engineers/technicians. Workers are turning down jobs because they just don’t have enough room in their schedule due to the demand being so high. This creates an opportunity for anyone interested in this industry to start training as a gas engineer whether it is through the traditional route or fast-tracked modern route. Gas engineer job role A gas engineer’s role is to service, install, maintain and repair gas appliances. The engineers can specialise in commercial or domestic gas with a range of gas appliances and property types included. Their job role may include:
  • Installing/repairing appliances to deliver gas
  • Maintaining/replacing systems which are faulty
  • Joining cutting and bending fittings and pipes
  • Checking for gas leaks and ensuring installations/repairs are up to code
  • Cost estimate evaluation for customers and explaining different insurance options, additional cover and energy-saving options
  • Confirming all requirements of safety are met
Skills needed for a gas engineer The worker will need to be a practical person who can cope with the physical demands of the job. The key skills are as follows:
  • Manual dexterity and strong attention to detail
  • Highly developed technical and mechanical skills
  • High-level mathematical ability and problem solving
  • Ability to maintain concentration for long periods
  • Strong communication skills when dealing with customers
How to get qualified as a gas engineer If you’re looking to start a new career as a gas engineer there are two main routes to become a gas safe registered engineer. You can apply to a traditional NVQ apprenticeship or choose a fast track managed learning programme. The NVQ apprenticeship is the traditional way to become a gas engineer that allows you to work within a company to gain experience and study to gain the right qualifications. The course can take a few years before you qualify as a gas engineer but you have the advantage of being paid while you train. On the other hand, the fast track gas safe course is a fast paced option for you to become fully qualified. You have more control over your learning and development and don’t need to compete for a limited amount of spaces within an apprenticeship. It all depends on what the individual is looking for in the course. The Skill’s Training Group is a UK leading heating, electrical and utilities training provider. They provide you with the opportunity to join one of their new entrant gas engineer courses and apprenticeships. For information about the courses provided, the link to the site is displayed below. https://www.skillstg.co.uk/category/new-entrant-gas-engineer-courses/ You will need to complete the following to become a gas engineer:
  • Pass an industry qualification like for example a level 3 NVQ or Diploma in courses such as gas installation and gas utilisation.
  • Complete ACS (Accredited Certification Scheme) gas training and assessment before you can become Gas Safe Registered.
  • Legally required to register with the Gas Safe Register which covers the appliances that you will be working on like boilers.
Career path for gas engineers You can potentially earn an annual salary between £25,000 and £35,000 once you’ve qualified as a gas engineer or technician. A large majority of workers’ salaries will start from £15,000 as they start their career through an apprenticeship but you will have some opportunities to earn more through overtime and bonus payments. You will have the freedom to choose from such jobs as working for insurance companies, completing maintenance work for letting agents and working as a subcontractor for British Gas. You will get the opportunities to apply for more senior and management roles once you gain enough experience in the field. Some companies may want you to take further qualifications so that you can specialise further within the field. It would be wise to keep up your training during your career as a gas engineer because it will be important to continue to develop your technical skills, knowledge and keep up to date with the latest technologies and appliances.      

Play UK slots – A Cheap way to have fun online

There are many different types of games that you can play, such as online strategy games, when you have some time, but if you want to earn some money, you will definitely want to try it. Thanks to the online casino slot machine, you have a great chance to win real money. Online slots are still the most popular casino games in the UK, and thousands of players are playing here in large scale play UK slots.

Slot developers

In fact, the type of online slot that the British players like ranging from classic slot machines and fruit machines to progressive headings to the latest video games. Play in the UK slots the sites ensure that there is something for everyone UK slots have done the best online gaming software providers such as Microgaming, NetEnt, IGT, NextGen Gaming, Blueprints, Lightning Box, 888 Games and more to give you the best results in online casinos in the UK. Regardless of whether you decide to play or best online slot machines on your computer at home,

Casino games to play

There are many casino games and most of them are available online to make a great selection of great players. Online UK slots casinos, a virtual copy of regular casino, are places where you can enjoy casino games without leaving your own bed. The game of online casino has various advantages, and the convenience of playing favorite games according to your choice and preference is the most important and desirable. There are also many other benefits of online gambling, such as some websites allowing players to play free games that can not be considered in terrestrial casinos. Not only can you play your favorite game for a long time without having trouble, but you can also interact with other well-meaning players. Players who spend money in cash or some who play fun can also use the opportunity of online casino games. It’s a good idea to spend time with your family using your favorite games, the real spirit of society that also offers inner satisfaction. Online directions can be a game for many players to share and enjoy. If you play live games, it’s very easy to talk to other players around and chat with them. slots The best way to relax and easily, to play online boundaries is the most popular form of online activity. People just like playing online games because they can play here without risk of throwing out of the bar or casino, as long as they like it. The advantage of online games is a great selection of planned games and more than traditional traditional casinos. Additionally, playing UK games at home is cheaper But before you decide to play in these UK slots, you need to make sure that the site is authentic and is free from legal flaws, which can cause a huge amount of loss. Unless you sign up for a site that is not trusted, you should not give any personal or monetary information. To win the best possible way to learn more about the slot game it will be the best option.

Playing UK slots on the internet

Online UK slots are basically equivalent to the UK slots machines which can be found in the physical casinos. You can find many providers of online slots at sites such as slots mummy and other online casino sites. The principle contrast will, in general, be the way that the payouts for the online adaptations will, in general, be very high in all cases, though in spots like Vegas, machines which have a similar sort of bonanzas are normally a minority. Numerous individuals appreciate playing the virtual rendition of these machines for the straightforward actuality that gratitude to various advancements and limits, it is conceivable to play free online UK slots where an individual can get to grasps with playing the diversion without spending any cash whatsoever.

Ongoing interaction of Slots

Playing UK slots online is moderately straight forward similarly all things considered with the slots in a land casino. Fundamentally, the thought is to put down a wagered on whichever of the lines the player needs, click a catch saying “turn” and trust that the reels will transform and subside into position. In the event that enough of the images coordinate and are by one another, at that point the player gets paid out as per their wager and the images. While this is all genuinely straight forward, there are sure things which the player ought to acquaint himself with first.

Payout table on Casino Slots

Know which images will pay out and how much every image is worth as they will vary. online slots

RNG or Random Number Generator

It is essential to just play on locales which have confirmed RNG. This implies the virtual machines have indistinguishable sort of calculations from the physical ones do and guarantees that the player isn’t being duped in any capacity and that the numbers are totally arbitrary consistently.

Scatter images

As the name recommends, disperse images can show up anyplace on a reel and in the event that a coordinating one shows up, at that point the prize will be duplicated in like manner. Similarly likewise with the conventional images, each disperse image will have an alternate esteem.

Wild images

These images can go about as whatever other image which is required at the time. For instance, in the event that two coordinating images show up on one line and, at that point a wild image shows up alongside them, this would consider three coordinating images and would give a payout to the player.

Tips and tricks of UK slots

Albeit online UK slots are mostly founded on good fortune, there are sure strategies to playing them. It is fitting, for instance, to spread the expense of the all out wager over whatever number lines as could be expected under the circumstances, regardless of whether it implies bringing down the wager on every particular line. By doing this, the player will build his chances of winning. Numerous individuals who choose to wager vigorously on one line are regularly disappointed when the picked line does not have any coordinating images but rather the one underneath does. Learning the contrast between each machine and diversion is additionally basic. There are diversions which have what is known as a “dynamic big stake”. These see distinctive machines connected together and the big stake pool is gotten from the loss of every player on the associated machine. As individuals lose, the big stake pool gets greater. While these kinds of amusements do offer substantial payouts, they are more enthusiastically to win and ought to most likely not be endeavored by the individuals who are tenderfoots or who don’t have the cash expected to stick around for chance for the enormous bonanza.

UK has longest tax code handbook in the world

The tax code of the UK has been the longest in the world since 2009 the tax code of the UK has actually doubled since 1997 and is reaching 11520 pages. The changes which are made annual and the duty form the law known as the finance law. It may change the rates of tax and the principles. The taxations are called as the “Her Majest’s Revenues and Customs”. The local councils are those who collect the tax at business rates from corporate companies and households. The largest source of income for the UK government is the income tax. The second would be the insurance contributions. The income tax was brought about after the Napoleonic wars and was permanently placed after 1842. The companies of the state were part of the tax after 1965  after which corporation tax was brought about. With that being brought into place, the income tax which was personal was brought down to 20 percent from 33 percent from the 2007 government from the 1979 government. Margaret thatcher was the one who helped in the indirect taxation and bring about less spending in the governments there fore having a lot more revenue for it to be spend. code VAT was added in the year as the Value added tax 19944 and other acts such as the finance act settled in via the Annual VAT tax. There was the standard tax that had a twenty percent and had a reduced rate of 5 percent with a zero rate . with this their were some services and goods that were exempt from the VAT. There is a registration of eighty three thousand euro  of vat which is exempt in the country. There si a time limit for claiming vat, the limit is 4 years with goods and 6 months for services. Vats are to be submitted every three months and those periods are called as the VAT Accounting periods. Business can decide on when they have to fill in their reutns and have to deal with the revenue and custioms . coding Employees have to reduce their salary by the employment taxes there is also the insurance contributions they have to make. There is also the system of PAY AS YOU EARN that is about . all the business have to register their employess tho the revenue and customs department and they would give them a login and registeration . it is important to note that business should have their employess own a employess liability insurance that will help insure and compensate an employee if he she becomes hurt. The rate of personal tax that a person has to pay depends on how much they earn. The current tax returns that a person has is 11000 per year. If it is 32000, then it would be of 20 percent. There is a add of 45 percent excedding 150000. There are many differernt taxes when it comes to savings and dividends

Restoration and Renewal of the Palace of Westminster

Parliament & Elections
A major refurbishment is needed to protect and preserve the heritage of the Palace of Westminster if it is to continue to serve as home to the UK Parliament in the 21st century and beyond. In 2016, a Joint Committee of both Houses of Parliament concluded that “a full decant of the Palace of Westminster presents the best option under which to deliver this work”. It is expected that Members of the 2017 Parliament will be asked to debate and approve, in principle, the decant and the establishment of a Sponsor Board and Delivery Authority to produce detailed costings of the Work Tools needed to carry out the project. The Delivery Authority’s proposals for restoration and renewal (R&R) of the Palace would be subject to approval from both Houses. If this work was agreed, the project would be managed by the Delivery Authority and overseen by the Sponsor Board. Andrea Leadsom MP, speaking in the Commons yesterday, said: “On restoration and renewal, the Commissions of both Houses are looking at the proposals and at what is to be done, and we hope to make some announcements in due course.”

What about leaving Westminster altogether?

In 2012, officials from both Houses reviewed the options for the long-term upkeep of the Palace. They suggested four alternative approaches. One, moving Parliament to a new purpose-built building, was ruled out by the House of Commons Commission and the House Committee of the House of Lords. No further analysis of this option has therefore been undertaken. An Independent Options Appraisal (IOA) was then commissioned to consider alternative delivery options for the Programme. A consortium led by Deloitte Real Estate considered rolling, partial and full decant against three potential outcomes from the minimum required to more ambitious improvements. It undertook detailed evaluation of five shortlisted scenarios and provided a summary of the likely capital expenditure of each of those five scenarios (see table 1).

Table 1: Total capital expenditure of shortlisted scenarios in the IOA

(£bn, based on a P50 confidence level, at Q2 2014 prices as reported in September 2014)



1. Rolling decant

(25-40 years)

2. Partial decant

(9-14 years)

3. Full decant

(5-8 years)

A. ‘do minimum’ – like-for-like replacement of existing systems



B. make some improvements



C. more ambitious improvements


The Consortium commented that as well as being the most expensive, a rolling decant programme was also the “least predictable in terms of cost and duration” and would have a “level of risk to the continuous running of the business of Parliament”. The full decant option was, conversely, deemed to have “greatly reduced” risks to the continuous running of Parliament.

A decision for Parliament

The two Houses established the Joint Committee on the Palace of Westminster, chaired by the then Leaders of the two Houses, to review how best to approach the R&R Programme. In September 2016, it concluded that:
  • “a full decant of the Palace of Westminster presents the best option under which to deliver this work”;
  • Temporary accommodation in Richmond House (Department of Health) would be ideal for the House of Commons and the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre would provide the best possible accommodation for the House of Lords
  • The delivery of R&R should be overseen by a statutory Sponsor Board; and
  • An arm’s-length Delivery Authority should be given responsibility for delivering the R&R Programme.
The Joint Committee recommended that the two Houses agree a motion to start this process but stressed that once a full business case had been developed, it too would need to be approved by Parliament. The Government announced that the initial vote would take place before Easter 2017. However, no debate was held. It is expected that a debate will be held and a decision taken early in the new Parliament.

Is a total decant the only way?

Some Members have argued against a full decant, to ensure that the Palace remains the home of Parliament throughout the works. In February 2017, the Public Accounts Committee took evidence from the R&R Programme and officials from other large-scale infrastructure projects. The Committee concluded that a full decant was the most economic, efficient and effective choice. It noted that delays in taking decisions added to the Programme’s costs. However, the Treasury Committee has argued that the assumptions and conclusions of Deloitte and the Joint Committee should be thoroughly scrutinised. It recommended that the House should not commit to an option or timetable until it has done so.

Where can I find out more?

A series of FAQs have been developed which provides further details on the proposed restoration of the Palace, including what the works could mean for Members and staff. Further information is also contained in the executive summary of the Joint Committee report and on the Palace of Westminster Restoration and Renewal Programme website.

Welfare spending: what’s in £218.3 billion?

Social Policy
More than a year has passed since the Summer Budget 2015 and the then Chancellor’s commitment to save £12 billion from the welfare budget. Over the next Parliament, total UK welfare spending is forecast to fall by around £7 billion (3.2%) between 2015-16 and 2019-20. But what makes up welfare spending? This blog uses the House of Commons Library’s new Welfare Expenditure and Savings Tool to answer some frequently asked questions.

So, how much do we spend on welfare?

In 2016-17 we’ll spend, across the UK, around £218.3 billion on welfare, according to DWP’s Benefit Caseload and Expenditure tables. That’s equivalent to around 11% of GDP or 28% of total managed expenditure.

And that includes…?

All UK expenditure on social security benefits and tax credits. That means things like disability benefits, ESA and incapacity benefits, Housing Benefit, Jobseeker’s Allowance, Universal Credit and the State Pension. It also covers Child and Working Tax Credits and Child Benefit. While the former are all administered by either the Department for Work and Pensions (in Great Britain) or the Department for Communities (in Northern Ireland), tax credits and Child Benefit are administered by Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (across the UK).

… so that’s mostly spending on the unemployed, right?

No. In 2016-17 spending on Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA”) and Income Support (working-age non-incapacity) will be around 2.2% of total welfare expenditure. Expenditure on Employment Support Allowance (ESA), for people assessed as being too disabled or ill to work – and other incapacity benefits will be around 6.8% of total spending. Other benefits make up a much larger proportion of welfare spending – take a look at the chart below. expenditure-chart

Oh. So which are the three largest sources of welfare spending?

The State Pension is the largest single source of welfare spending, making up around 42% of total expenditure in 2016-17. The State Pension has been the largest single source of expenditure in every year since 1996-97 (and has always been so), when it comprised 36% of total spending. By 2020-21, the State Pension is forecast to make up around 45% of welfare spending. HMRC tax credits will make up around 13% of expenditure in 2016-17, equivalent to about £28.5 billion. Housing Benefit is the third largest source of expenditure, making up around 11% of total spending.

But hasn’t the Government been making cuts to welfare?

Yes – at Budget 2010 the Government promised to “tackle welfare dependency and unaffordable spending”, while at the Summer Budget 2015 the Chancellor committed to saving £12 billion from the working-age welfare bill. These cuts are yet, however, to result in a sustained fall in total welfare expenditure. Expenditure did fall in 2013/14 by 1.2% compared to the previous year. In other years up to 2015-16 it continued to increase, however, though more slowly than would otherwise have been the case had changes not been made.

Ah. In that case, does welfare expenditure keep on rising?

Welfare expenditure in Great Britain rose, in real terms compared to the previous year, in 31 of the 37 years between 1979-80 and 2015-16. It fell in six years: from 1987/88 to 1989/90, in 1996/97, 1997/98 and 2013/14. The OBR’s June 2015 Welfare Trends report looks at this more closely. Expenditure is forecast to fall, however, over the next four years: from £219.9 billion across the UK in 2015-16 (real terms 2016-17 prices) to £212.9 billion in 2019-20 (real terms 2016-17 prices). This is in part due to welfare changes announced by the Chancellor between June Budget 2010 and March Budget 2016. Assuming all savings announced by the Chancellor since June 2010 are realised, as initially forecast, in full, a total of around £36 billion (real terms 2016/17 prices) will be saved in 2019-20. That’s around 15% of what total expenditure might otherwise have been.

Spending Review 2015: the future of overseas aid

World Affair
The UK is committed to spending 0.7% of its gross national income on aid each year. While this gives a sense of the scale of overall future spending in this area, there are still questions to be answered about exactly how much money is spent, who spends it and where. Some of these questions may be answered in the Spending Review on 25 November.

Total aid spending

The International Development (Official Development Assistance Target) Act 2015 made it a legal requirement for the UK to spend at least 0.7% of gross national income on aid. The UK was already meeting this target prior to the Act, having done so for the first time in 2013. The government aims to hit, but not significantly exceed, the 0.7% level. In 2016, 0.7% of gross national income is forecast to be £13.4 billion (using OBR forecasts from July 2015 and gross national income estimates produced using current methods). Of course this figure is based on current forecasts, and forecasts change – we will have new forecasts published alongside the Spending Review, and we will not know what 0.7% of gross national income in 2016 actually has been until after that year ends.

In 2014, an estimated £11.8 billion was spent on aid.

Defining aid spending: The commitment to spend 0.7% of gross national income on aid uses the international standard definition of aid, Overseas Development Assistance (ODA). Spending counts as aid under this definition essentially if it goes to certain countries and multilateral development organisations, and if it is “administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries as its main objective”. There are some additional parts to the definition – for example relating to limiting when military spending can count as aid. The OECD’s Is It ODA? (2008) provides a good overview.

Who allocates the aid? DFID and other departments

The 0.7% spending commitment relates to spending both by the Department for International Development (DFID) and by other government departments and official sources. In 2014, DFID accounted for 86% of aid spending – about £10.1 billion out of the total of £11.8 billion from official UK sources.

Budgets in 2015/16

The government is looking for savings to help reduce the budget deficit, and it has been suggested that the aid budget could be used more to support the work of departments other than DFID. Such changes have already started to happen, for example since the 2013 Spending Review, the amount allocated to DFID in 2015/16 has changed: its resource DEL – the part of the budget that covers most of DFID’s non-capital spending – has fallen by more than a billion pounds, from £8.5 billion to £7.4 billion. This change is due to transfers to other government departments, largely to the new conflict, stability and security fund (CSSF) launched in April 2015, which replaces the DFID, FCO and MOD Conflict Pool. The new CSSF brings together the UK’s contribution to multilateral peacekeeping, security and defence activities, along with aid and non-aid programmes in countries at risk of instability. Much of the CSSF settlement was originally part of DFID’s budget but the majority has now been transferred to the budgets of other parts of government. In total, £823 million has been transferred from DFID in relation to the CSSF, mostly to the FCO (£739m). Beyond this, around £270 million of aid spending for 2015/16 was moved from DFID to other departments, for them to spend in line with the standard international definition of aid. The FCO has received almost half of this budget, and a third has gone to the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, which is responsible for certain spending on research and science.

The Spending Review and budgets from 2016/17

As part of the Spending Review, the Treasury has been running a competitive process across government to scrutinise aid spending across government and to ensure that aid spending represents “high value for money”. It has been reported that the FCO has been pressing for more money through this route, including to spend on promoting trade and investment in various emerging markets. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is said to have requested funding for science that could help people in developing countries, including the development and distribution of vaccines.

What will DFID do with its budgets in future?

DFID are currently reviewing their aid spending, through bilateral and multilateral aid reviews. The bilateral aid review will help DFID target and allocate its funding by looking at factors such as the level and persistence of extreme poverty in each country and the ability of the governments to finance their own development needs. The multilateral aid review will look at providing funding through different multilateral organisations, exploring factors such as the value for money provided by potential partners and whether their objectives are aligned with those of the UK. The bilateral and multilateral aid reviews may not be completed by the time of the Spending Review – the multilateral aid review at least is due to be published in March 2016. We may however have more information in a Single Departmental Plan for DFID. Single Departmental Plans are a new set of publications, being developed alongside the Spending Review, which are expected to set out government priorities alongside the resources to be dedicated to them. The Conservative manifesto also gives some indications as to future activity – talking about immunisation, the development of new drugs, education, nutrition, access to clean water and sanitation, gender equality, jobs and growth, and responding to humanitarian crises. It also proposed that payment by results be expanded and that aid money to governments be clearly earmarked for specific purposes. Earlier this month, the Prime Minister announced that at least half of the Department for International Development’s budget will be spent on stabilising and supporting broken and fragile states. In 2013, 43% of UK aid was spent in fragile and conflict-affect states.


Shortly after the original publication of this article, the Government published UK aid: tackling global challenges in the national interest (23 November 2015). This new strategy document explains that the aid budget will be restructured. Underpinning the strategy is the principle that the UK’s development spending “will meet our moral obligation to the world’s poorest and also support our national interest”.

There will be four strategic objectives for aid spending:

  • Strengthening global peace, security and governance.
  • Strengthening resilience and response to crises.
  • Promoting global prosperity.
  • Tackling extreme poverty and helping the world’s most vulnerable.

Announcements include:

  • an aid crisis reserve,
  • an increase in the size of the conflict, stability and security fund, increased aid spending for the Syrian crisis and the related region,
  • a new Global Challenges research fund to “ensure UK science takes a leading role in addressing the problems faced by developing countries”,
  • a new “Ross Fund” to provide funding to tackle infectious diseases, including those with potential to become epidemics,
  • a new Prosperity Fund, led by the National Security Council, to help improve the business climate in developing countries, along with the operation of markets, energy and financial sector reform, and the ability of governments to tackle corruption.

Sources and further information:

  • National Audit Office, Managing the Official Development Assistance target (January 2015)
  • Independent Commission for Aid Impact, UK Aid Spent by Departments Other Than DFID (preliminary investigation, February 2015)
  • Department for International Development, Provisional UK ODA as a proportion of GNI 2014 (April 2015)
  • Conservative Party Manifesto 2015 (April 2015)
  • Department for International Development, Main Estimate 2015/16: Memorandum to the International Development Committee (published July 2015)
  • HM Treasury, A country that lives within its means: Spending Review 2015 (July 2015)
  • John Manzoni, Clarifying our priorities – Single Departmental Plans (July 2015)
  • Justine Greening: UK aid – why it’s the right thing and smart thing to do for Britain (15 October 2015)
  • Lord Mayor’s Banquet 2015: Prime Minister’s speech (16 November 2015)
  • Financial Times, Cash-strapped UK departments circle aid budget ahead of cuts (20 November 2015)
  • HM Treasury and DFID, UK aid: tackling global challenges in the national interest (23 November 2015)
  • Strategic Defence and Security Review (October 2010), PQ 224151 23 February 2015, PQ 12448 26 October 2015, HC Deb 10 Sep 2015 cc640-2